The VSM: Identifying and orienting spacecraft
|Original Soyuz||very long docking unit|
|Soyuz ferry||no solar arrays|
|ASTP Soyuz||three-petal docking mecanism, no usual transponders|
|Soyuz T||Aft transponder - two dishes|
|Soyuz TM||Aft transponder - two dishes,
forward transponders replaced with 2 Kurs antennas
(one on top, one on the left side)
(Soyuz-1 - Soyuz-9)
(Soyuz-12 - 40
(Soyuz T-1 - 15)
Solar arrays can help to differ top from bottom - upper side
is blue and flat, lower is light and ribbed.
View point is in front of the station,|
shifted to the right and upwards.
Green arrows show "upwards" direction of each module.
Kvant's top is marked with a big mast called Sofora and a smaller one.
This direction is also "upward" for the base module.
TKS-based modules (Kvant-2,Kristall,Spektr,Priroda)
There are 4 long and 2 short radiators (pointed with yellow arrow
on this photo ) on each module. Short ones are placed laterally.
So, if you see short radiators between long ones - you see module side.
If not - it's top or bottom.|
Top of each module is marked by 2 small antennas (pointed with green arrow on the photo ) in the middle of its length near ends of long radiators. They are on long poles and easy to notice. There is also 1 antenna on module bottom, but it's on a short base and hardly visible.
Solar arrays are placed laterally.